Promotional Activities

This measure was provided by AUSTRIAN MOBILITY RESEARCH (AMOR) in 2014 under the CH4LLENGE project, financed by the European Commission.


Promotional activities can be carried out for a lot of different products and services. In this description promotional activities always refer to promotional activities linked with sustainable transport. Under the term promotional activities several different promotional tools are considered, ranging from very traditional tools like brochures, newsletters etc. to more progressive tools like facebook, you tube etc.  This entry thus considers a package of types of promotional activity, which might be pursued individually or together.

But before selecting the right tools for the promotional activities it is very important to define its main target group, so to whom the activities should be aimed for and its main objectives. The most common types of objectives that can be assisted by a campaign include the following examples:

  • Traffic Level: e.g. reduction of the number of trips
  • Safety: e.g. reduction of speed or promotion of safe means of transport like walking and cycling
  • Modal Shift: e.g. to encourage people to shift from private car use towards public transport
  • Environmental issues: e.g. to encourage people to use environmentally friendly and sustainable modes of transport to reduce noise and air pollution
  • Health: e.g. reduction of obesity, heart disease, stress and promotion of a healthier lifestyle.
  • Accessibility: e.g. the promotion of improvements for disabled people and the provision of equal access for everybody to participate in transport life.

Promotional activities or campaigns are considered as so called “soft measures”. They seem to be very effective if they are combined with “hard measures” like improvements in the infrastructure. So the opening ceremony of a new built cycling track can be embedded into a promotional campaign of “How does the city encourage people to cycle more often”. This campaign can be supported by promotional activities like an information centre on the city square, jingles about cycling on the local TV and pictures of famous city representatives who are riding their bike in the local newspapers.

Like for a lot of measures in transport promotional activities or campaigns should be measurable. More in concrete the objectives should be specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic and time related. When the objectives follow these rules also the impacts are easier to quantify and it is easier to find acceptability among the public and politicians.

Introduction

The goal of marketing is to stand out and be noticed. Good marketing keeps drawing the customers attention to offered products and services. Product and service promotion is the most common form of marketing. These rules can be applied to all different market sectors including the sector of mobility.

In the sector of mobility, transport planning alone is not enough to provoke changes in transport behaviour, and infrastructural changes need to be complemented by strategies aimed at persuading people to change their behaviour. Promotional activities can be considered to be the key:

  • to making people aware of the benefits of using sustainable modes;
  • to attracting customers to new services such as public transport routes;
  • to encouraging cycling; and
  • to reviving walking for short trips.

Many general promotional activities in the field of sustainable mobility have been carried out in recent years. The most common types of objectives that can be assisted by a campaign include the following:

  • Traffic Level: e.g. reduction of the number of trips
  • Safety: e.g. reduction of speed or promotion of safe means of transport like walking and cycling
  • Modal Shift: e.g. to encourage people to shift from private car use towards public transport
  • Environmental issues: e.g. to encourage people to use environmentally friendly and sustainable modes of transport to reduce noise and air pollution
  • Health: e.g. reduction of obesity, heart disease, stress and promotion of a healthier lifestyle.
  • Accessibility: e.g. the promotion of improvements for disabled people and the provision of equal access for everybody to participate in transport life

European Mobility Week campaign

Each year from 16 to 22 September hundreds of European cities and towns participate in the European Mobility Week (EMW), an annual campaign on sustainable urban mobility. Although political commitment at the local level is an essential requirement to join the campaign, the success of EMW really depends on the enthusiasm of citizens that get involved in a range of public events, such as bicycle masses, car free days, walk-to-school initiatives and many other public activities promoting sustainable and active travel.  The European Commission has launched an EU project (European Mobility Week, http://www.mobilityweek.eu/) to further support the local take up of promotional activities all related with sustainable mobility. The most active cities can also apply for the so called EMW Award. So the EMW is already a well-known brand and interested cities can easily follow a catalogue of already tested promotional actions.

Ecodriving campaign

Ecodriving is a term used to describe energy efficient use of vehicles. It is an easy way to reduce fuel consumption from road transport so that less fuel is used to travel the same distance. In recent decades, engine technology and performance of cars have improved rapidly, while most drivers have not adapted their driving style. Ecodriving represents a driving culture which suits modern engines and makes best use of advanced vehicle technologies. In order to promote ecodriving the whole approach is very often embedded into a broader awareness campaign.

The target group of an ecodriving campaign might vary and can be new drivers being educated in driving schools, professional drivers that need their car or lorry every day for their work and private drivers.

Within the ecodriving campaign a huge variety of ecodriving promotional materials can be used including posters, fliers, air-fresheners, econometers to help calculate fuel consumption, tyre pressure gauges, pens and USB memory sticks and DVDs. Some of the materials, such as the tyre pressure gauges and the econometers have a specific purpose related to ecodriving, but in all cases the materials share a common purpose of raising awareness of ecodriving, keeping the subject live in people´s minds, and very often directing users to a website for more in-depth information.

Other local promotional activities

A lot of smaller promotional activities in the field of sustainable transport have been carried out including:

  • The campaign “Kopf an, Motor aus” was an image campaign to promote walking and cycling in German cities. It took place in 2010 and 2011 and was funded by the German climate initiative with € 4 Mio. All in all, 9 cities took part in the campaign. The cities were selected by a national competition with more than 100 applicant cities taking part in the competition. The campaign’s aim was simple: to transfer short distance car trips of less than 6 km to walking and cycling. It clearly focused on modal shift and thus on a change of mobility behaviour.
  • The Bolzano Corporate Cycling campaign is a good example for the branding of a sustainable mobility mode as part of the city identity. Logo, slogan, colour - the brand "Bici Bolzano- Fahrrad Bozen" is integrated from the letter head of the community paper, to transport and tourism related printing products and design of infrastructure elements. The brand is very visible and very well recognised by citizens and visitors.

Promotional activities take a central role in achieving mobility behaviour changes. The following example shows the potential of promotional activities in the sector of public transport (see Figure 1).

A study conducted among users and non-users of public transport in German metropolitan areas on the reasons for their choices of transport produced the following results:

  • 23% of the non-users are prevented from travelling on public transport for specific reasons (e.g. they have to transport bulky items, etc.). A further 28% are not sufficiently served by public transport (e.g. no stops within a reasonable distance or they need to travel outside operating hours).
  • 21% and 6% are not well enough informed or simply have a negative perception of public transport, respectively. By means of soft mobility management measures, such as information campaigns, awareness programmes, or trial offers, these people can be motivated to change their travel habits. Their percentage is higher than the existing level of demand (17%)!
  • 5% of all respondents who don’t use public transport have no particular reason for their behaviour. They have alternatives available, know all about these, and don’t have a negative attitude towards them. They are free to choose their preferred travel mode, but do not use public transport out of habit. This is another group of potential customers that can be approached by mobility management.
  • An equally high proportion of public transport users are also free to choose their preferred transport mode. They also have alternatives. If services were to deteriorate, these customers could easily turn away from public transport. Therefore, local public transport operators must strive to retain these customers. With different figures, this pattern can be applied to other metropolitan areas.

01
Figure 1: Potential of promotional activities, Source: Socialdata

Terminology

Promotional activities can be carried out for a lot of different products and services. In this description promotional activities always refer to promotional activities linked with sustainable transport.

Under the term promotional activities a lot of different promotional tools are subsumed. In the following chapter a brief definition of the most common promotion tools is described.

Letter

Letters can be used as a part of an engagement process, by sending a personally addressed letter to all affected households, businesses or stakeholder groups. It should outline the issue at hand and can invite comments, and should always indicate where the comment should be directed to within an organisation. A letter can be particularly useful where messages are simple and targeted to a relatively small number of people who are directly affected by what is to be done. Personalising a letter can be an important way to reassure people that their views and problems are being considered.

Poster, roll up

Posters and roll ups can be used to advertise an event or increase awareness of a project. They are often useful to attract the attention of passers-by who may be visiting an area and who may not have otherwise been aware of the project. Posters and roll ups can be displayed in shop windows, on community notice boards and at bus and train stations. They can also be attached to street posts and other public spaces with the permission of the relevant authority.

Leaflets/ Brochure

A brochure or leaflet is a short printed document, usually with a strong emphasis on design. It is useful for delivering a simple message to a large number of people. It is not the appropriate tool for complicated technical information. Some people may request more detailed information than can be provided in a brochure. It may be possible to provide a telephone hotline and/or a website or to refer them to a fact sheet providing more information.

Newsletter

A newsletter is a document which is produced regularly, providing up-to-date information on how a project is progressing. It may be published weekly, monthly or quarterly. The interval between issues and the number of issues produced will be governed by the amount of information to be communicated to the public and by the available resources. A newsletter can also provide the public with reassurance that a project is continuing, particularly in the planning stages where there may be few physical signs of progress. If widely distributed, a newsletter has the potential to reach a large audience. Careful thought should be given to the design and method of distribution to maximise delivery of information.

Fact sheet

A fact sheet is a short document designed to provide a review of a project or strategy. It can provide detailed descriptions, but should not rely on the reader having technical knowledge if it is to be publicly available. A fact sheet can be a useful reference document to accompany responses to any queries from the public. It may be particular effective for providing reassurance to individuals following unfavorable or inaccurate media coverage.

Telephone techniques

Telephones can provide an efficient way of public engagement and providing information. A very high proportion of the population have access to telephones (home, work, mobile). Telephones can be used to provide information, such as, hot-line numbers to describe essential transport improvements/maintenance or telephone surveys to gauge the public perception on certain transport related issues/proposals. A major benefit of telephone engagement is that people can be accessed remotely and can gain information on a project from anywhere and anytime they choose. Additionally, the telephone is a good method for people to contribute their comments, concerns and ideas on specific issues to a member of the project team.

Radio/television

Radio and television are a very powerful tool to spread a message. They offer access to a big audience and can be used in different ways. Either to broadcast a short advertisement or to give room for a dialogue between the presenter and the project promoter or expert (often with back-up journalist reporting), sometimes with a live audience providing reactions and asking questions, or (in a call-in radio show) with listeners phoning in and asking specific questions. This enables:

  • Information about the project to reach a wider public audience (e.g. messages about key benefits of a project, or the promotion of an engagement event);
  • Much more detail to be presented than in a newspaper article;
  • Clarification to be provided about a specific issue or concern;
  • Other public concerns and misunderstandings to be aired.

Exhibition

An exhibition is the display of information for a set period of time. It is used at key stages of the project when a milestone has been reached. Traditionally, an exhibition uses posters/boards, reports, newsletters and graphics to display information. Other techniques include computer displays and models. It may stand alone, or can be staffed by people working on the project. Advertising the purpose, location and timing of the exhibition is an important step in planning. It is important to think carefully about where to locate an exhibition. It may be necessary to exhibit information in more than one location, particularly if the project covers a large geographic area. Venues should be accessible to a range of people who may be impacted by a project. The layout of an exhibition is also important. People should be able to easily move around and view information.

Information centre

An information centre is a project office established with prescribed hours to distribute information and respond to enquiries. It is staffed by someone knowledgeable about the project and typically used in projects which span over a few years or more. It can be used as the first point of contact for people wanting to become involved in a project as it has both current information and background information to the project. A local authority or local organisation may provide a room for the information centre. Ideally an information centre should be located near to the project area. However, in some cases this will not be possible. If space is available, an information centre can be used for displays or exhibitions and other engagement activities if necessary.

Social media

Social media is the social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. Social media technologies take on many different forms including magazines, internet forums, weblogs, social networks, photographs or videos.

Social media distinct from industrial or traditional media (newspapers, television etc) as they are comparatively inexpensive and accessible. They enable anyone to publish or access information.

Examples for social media are: Facebook, LinkedIn, Google+, YouTube, Twitter etc.

Campaign

A campaign can be considered as a series of planned activities with a particular social, commercial or political aim to promote a particular product, idea or an event. By this definition there are many different types of campaigns. Campaigns aim to reach certain objectives, send messages and in turn influence the target group’s attitudes and behaviour. Very often campaigns use a variety of promotional tools (e.g. brochures, radio spots, exhibitions etc.)

Description

A campaign use a variety of promotional activities/tools (e.g. brochures, radio spots, exhibitions etc). Some campaigns do not resemble a “traditional” campaign, which use materials like posters, leaflets, radio or TV adverts. Rather, they may evolve into new forms of communications management that combine elements. The researchers of the EU project TAPESTRY project distinguish between the following types of campaign:

  • Traditional Campaigns
    They are “one-way-communication” campaigns using posters, newsletters, radio, television or other media to place a message and advertise the desired behaviour or product.
  • “Dialogue marketing” techniques
    Use several communication cycles to narrow down their target group. This happens by sending information including feedback or options for requesting specific information. The subsequent information disseminated is based then on the information received from the previous communication cycle.
  • Image or brand building
    They create a positive attitude for a sustainable transport mode and display the engagement of the organising entity, such as a municipality, for the promotion of the chosen transport mode. Part of the aim is to transfer the positive image and engagement for this transport mode as displayed in the campaign to citizens and all potential users of that mode.
  • Social & cultural events
    Social and cultural events are used to motivate people to try new behaviour. Such an event is dedicated to e.g. cycling as the central element and offers different fun-centered activities and elements. Participants of these events experience the benefits of a new behaviour in a playful and pleasant way.
  • Education sector programmes
    These include campaigns taking place in kindergartens, schools or any other educational institution. The aim is to integrate sustainable transport modes at a young age and make it a habitual behaviour. The intensity of integrating campaigns to these options range from simply choosing the institutional setting as the framework for the campaign to integrating the campaign into a school’s curriculum.

Steps to create a successful campaign

The EU project MAX-SUCCESS developed a scheme of 3 stages and 10 steps (Figure 2) for designing campaigns. Travel awareness campaigns involve a three stage process-planning, implementation and post campaign stages. Whilst these are depicted as a series of consequential steps, in reality, these overlap or sometimes are undertaken in parallel. The three stages are broken down into 10 steps. The subject of the 10 stages can be found in the figure below.

MAX WPA campaign framework_final
Figure 2: MaxTag Design Framework - the main stages

Why introduce promotional activities?

Promotional activities aim to either maintain or promote certain behaviour or the use of a certain product. Understanding behaviour and the mechanisms of behaviour change is essential for designing promotional activities. There are several theories and approaches to explain behaviour. One of these theories is the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

This theory sets out three types of beliefs:

  1. Behavioural Beliefs – e.g. factors such as freedom, health, comfort, relaxation
  2. Normative Beliefs – e.g. whether friends of family or other people important to an individual approve or disapprove of a given behaviour
  3. Control Beliefs - e.g. factors, usually determined by experience or 2nd hand experience which control whether people do something or not, e.g. the weather, time of day, whether in a hurry, luggage, traffic levels etc.

Based upon this theory the EU-funded project TAPESTRY and further on follower projects like MAX-SUCCESS developed the Stages of Change model for the transport sector. The following description illustrates this model. In essence, this draws on elements of the Stages of Change model.

Awareness
Awareness of the problems caused by car traffic (congestion, pollution etc.) is the first step. Being aware that there are problems to be solved is a pre-condition to accepting the need for action to help solve them.

Accepting responsibility
The second stage is to accept a level of personal responsibility for the problems and for contributing to the solutions. Car users are unlikely to move any further towards changing their behaviour as a result of a campaign if they don’t accept that they have a personal part to play in alleviating problems caused by car traffic.

Perception of options
How alternative modes are perceived will have a strong influence on whether they are viewed as viable options in place of the car. The most important factors at this stage are related to the “system” (e.g. whether public transport is seen to be on time, safe, easy to use), and those related to “society” (e.g. an individual’s reliance on the views of other people in shaping their own attitudes and behaviour). The latter include the valued opinions of family members, friends, work colleagues and what is seen to be “normal” in their community.

Evaluation of options
People may perceive different modes in different ways. However, the way in which they prioritise the characteristics of the alternatives may vary according to particular circumstances. People will only consider voluntarily changing mode if they have a positive perception of the alternatives with regard to factors, which are most important to them. For example, if the most important factor for them is cost, they are unlikely to favour buses if they think the tickets are too expensive, even if a bus trip is seen to be quicker than the same trip by car. This stage therefore will assess which factors are most important in travel choices.

Making a choice
This fifth stage relates to whether an individual really intends to change to using an alternative mode for certain trips. The establishment of an intention to change is one step before a change in behaviour can be measured.

Experimental behaviour
Trying out the new mode for certain trips for a short time on an experimental basis is the penultimate step. If the experience is positive, then this change may become more permanent. If, however the (positive) perceptions are not confirmed by experience, then it may lead to a re-evaluation of the options and a relapse to the old behaviour. It may also lead to a re-assessment of their actual / stated level of concern about the underlying problem, or their willingness to accept personal responsibility.

Habitual behaviour
The final stage is the long term adoption of the new mode for certain trips. When this stage has been reached, the old habitual behaviour has been broken and a new pattern established. This is the final goal of a programme to change travel behaviour, but is the most difficult to achieve. The overall impact of a campaign on the behaviour of the target population can be assessed by measuring changes in modal split (i.e. percentage of trips by mode), using a travel diary or related data.

Each stage of the process can be influenced not just by the campaign, but also by other external or exogenous factors. Measuring the impacts of the campaign therefore has to be combined with measuring specifically declared campaign effects and more general campaign recall, as well as recording the possible impacts of other non-campaign measures implemented or external factors.

Demand impacts

A key role of ‘soft’ policies such as promotional activities in the sector of mobility is often simply to inform people who are using their car for the majority of trips about other modes.

Often car users have little knowledge about how to use public transport, or have inaccurate perceptions about cycling and walking. In addition, there is a lack of information about the advantages of these transport modes. It is therefore necessary to close this gap with targeted information and services. This is particularly the case for public transport, where lack of awareness about when, where and how services operate can be a major barrier to its use.

In addition to providing information on how to use sustainable modes, promotional activities can help increase the acceptance of the need for car restraint measures. Restraint measures and initiatives in favor of environmentally friendly modes are accepted more readily and effectively if there is an understanding among the general public of the reasons behind them. A combination of measures, linking ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ transport policies in a coordinated strategy, has the greatest chance of success. Thus, promotional activities take a central role in achieving mobility behavior changes and directly have an impact on the demand.

Most promotional activities aim to switch from car to more sustainable modes.

Responses and situations
Response Reduction in road traffic Expected in situations
A switch from car to public transport could either end in a decrease of total travel time but could also end in an increase of travel time, which might lead to a change of departure time.
No impact expected.
No impact expected.
No impact expected.
This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to change modes.
This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to change modes, which lead to less car usage and might lead to sell the car.
No impact expected.
= Weakest possible response = Strongest possible positive response
= Weakest possible negative response = Strongest possible negative response
= No response

Short and long run demand responses

The Stages of Change model illustrates how behaviour change works. In the last step of the Stages of Change model the long term adoption of the new mode for certain trips is described. When this stage has been reached, the old habitual behavior has been broken and a new pattern established. This is the final goal of a programme to change travel behaviour, but is the most difficult to achieve. Once this step is reached it is very likely that the new selected transport mode will stay for a while. Unless you will go through the Stages of Chance model again and select another transport mode or your living conditions might change completely (e.g. you change flat and move to another destination). That could be another crucial point where a behaviour change might become evident.

Demand responses
Response - 1st year 2-4 years 5 years 10+ years
This depends very much on the special individual case.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
  Once the change from one mode to another mode was implemented into daily life, it is not very likely to be changed back.
  Once you made the decision to sell your car, it is not very likely to buy a new one, unless your living conditions stay the same.
  No impact expected.
= Weakest possible response = Strongest possible positive response
= Weakest possible negative response = Strongest possible negative response
= No response

Supply impacts

Depending on the main focus of the promotional activities, it might also have an influence on the supply. An awareness campaign to promote cycling has the main aim to get more cyclists. This will further imply that the city needs to build more cycle lanes. An awareness campaign to promote public transport has the main aim to get more public transport users. This might imply that the public transport operator needs to buy new busses or trams.

Financing requirements

Promotional activities can be carried on a broad scale of. Also in terms of costs there are huge variations. This can range from a simple brochure to a very comprehensive awareness campaign.

Promotional activities can also create a change in operating costs. If cycling is promoted in a city this might end up in a need of change of the city budget in favour of building more cycle lanes and use less money for extending the road network.

In terms of usage of revenues let us take an example on a small scale. Larger companies in urban areas are facing more and more mobility problems for their employees. Parking space is getting less and the existing one is getting more expensive. A very interesting financing opportunity for promotional activities are fees gained from the parking space management. So employees are paying for their parking space. This money is used to support and/or promote walking, cycling and public transport for other employees.

This also works on the scale of the city level. Some cities use all or parts of the money gained from parking space management to support sustainable transport modes. This approach is easy to follow and easy to explain.

Expected impact on key policy objectives

The focus of the promotional activities is to promote sustainable transport. In this sense a promotion of sustainable transport leads automatically to a better protection of the environment. In special cases promotional activities have a special focus on safety. In this case promotional activities will also lead to an impact in this topic e.g. transport safety campaign for young drivers, city wide speed limit campaigns etc.

Contribution to objectives

Objective

Scale of contribution

Comment

  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. Most of the promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport. For cyclists, pedestrians and public transport users it will be cheaper to provide and maintain infrastructure than for car drivers.
  Promotional campaigns, particularly linked to local streets, should enhance their livability.
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport modes, which leads directly to protect the environment.
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. If the main objective of the promotional activity is to increase accessibility for e.g. handicapped people, then this can have an impact.
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase transport safety, e.g. awareness campaign for 30 km/h speed limit in cities.
  No impact expected.
  Promotional activities are inexpensive to introduce.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

Expected impact on problems

The focus of the promotional activities is to promote sustainable transport. In this sense a promotion of sustainable transport leads automatically to a better protection of the environment and to less congestion.

In some cases promotional activities have a stronger focus on safety. Therefore, bigger impacts can be expected on the amount of accidents. e.g. transport safety campaign for young drivers, city wide speed limit campaigns etc.

Contribution to alleviation of key problems

Problem

Scale of contribution

Comment

Congestion

This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport modes, which leads directly to less congestion.
Community impacts Promotional campaigns, particularly linked to local streets, should encourage community involvement.
Environmental damage This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport modes, which leads directly to protect the environment.
Poor accessibility This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. If the main objective of the promotional activity is to increase accessibility for e.g. handicapped people, then this can have an impact.
Social and geographical disadvantage No impact expected.
Accidents This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase transport safety, e.g. awareness campaign for 30 km/h speed limit in cities in order to decrease accidents.
Economic growth No impact expected.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

Expected winners and losers

The expected winners of general promotional activities will be the main target group of the activities (or the campaign). So if general promotional activities focus on car drivers that should be encouraged to switch to more sustainable transport modes, then it will be the car drivers themselves who will be the expected winners. If the promotional activities have the main focus on transport safety for children then the main winners will be the children.

Therefore, before creating promotional activities it is very important to define the main target group for the activities. Based on the envisaged target group the promotional activities will be selected. A few examples of potential winners for specific objectives of the promotional activities are listed below:

Ecodriving campaign
The winners are educated private or public car drivers. They will learn how to drive with their car more efficient. So they emit less CO2 and use less fuel.

Transport safety campaign for children
The winners are children as their parents learn how to stimulate a certain mobility behavour or they will benefit from another measure e.g. speed limit in the city centre, which makes the circumstances safer for children.

European Mobility Week campaign
The winners are car drivers who try out a different transport mode during the European Mobility Week and might use sustainable modes more often once the campaign ends.

There are no big losers, but when public transport is advertised and more and more people are using a public transport system in the city, then more buses, trams or trains might be needed to deal with the higher demand. If this additional infrastructure cannot be provided for whatever reason, then existing public transport users might suffer from overcrowding. The same effect might occur to cycling infrastructure (cycle lanes, cycle racks).

Winners and losers

Group

Winners/Losers

Comment

Large scale freight and commercial traffic

They might benefit from less car use and less congestion.

Small businesses

No impact is expected for small businesses.

High income car-users

No impact is expected for high income car users.

Low income car-users with poor access to public transport

Promotional activities on cycling will have a positive impact on this target group.
All existing public transport users They might suffer from more crowded buses, trams and trains.

People living adjacent to the area targeted

No impact is expected for this target group.

Cyclists including children

The more people are using the bike, the more likely the infrastructure for cyclists will be extended.

People at higher risk of health problems exacerbated by poor air quality

They will benefit from less emission thanks to more sustainable transport modes.

People making high value, important journeys

No impact is expected for this target group.

The average car user

The average user will benefit from less car usage and less congestion.
= Weakest possible benefit = Strongest possible positive benefit
= Weakest possible negative benefit = Strongest possible negative benefit
= Neither wins nor loses

Barriers to implementation

Before carrying out promotional activities it is very important to define clear aims and objectives. Therefore, the following questions should be answered:

  • How many people do you want to reach?
  • What behavioural change is desired?
  • Will your campaign stand alone or be embedded in a larger project?

Wherever possible, promotional activities or campaign objectives should be measurable, i.e. quantified, and share as many as possible of the key characteristics that are described by the acronym ‘SMART’:

  • Specific. Campaign objectives should be written and expressed in clear, simple terms so that all parties involved understand exactly what they are trying to achieve.
  • Measurable. Campaign objectives should be measured precisely and accurately (quantified). This determines if and when the objectives have been achieved.
  • Acceptable. Campaign objectives should be shared and backed by all the involved parties.
  • Realistic. Campaign objectives should be attainable. Setting unrealistically high or low expectations leads to poor results.
  • Time related. Campaign objectives should specify a time frame for their accomplishment.

The main barriers for promotional activities or campaigns are:

  • Financial issues
  • Political acceptability
  • Public acceptability

In the years of financial restrictions it is very likely that money for promotional activities is reduced to a minimum. Therefore, it is even more important to show the effect of these activities through the above mentioned SMART indicators. Effects of promotional activities are very often hard to identify and very often have a long lasting output.

Political and public acceptability vary very much and depend on the main objective of the promotional activities and the given local circumstances. So before starting the promotional activities it is worth while to have a closer look to the current local circumstances. This could avoid the promotional activities being less effective than envisaged.

Scale of barriers
Barrier Scale Comment
Legal The legal framework needs to be checked before promotional activities are launched.
Finance The direct effects of promotional activities are very hard to measure. The effects are very often long lasting and are not visible directly after the end of the promotional activities.
Governance A combination of measures, linking ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ transport policies in a coordinated strategy, has the greatest chance of success. Thus, promotional activities take a central role in achieving mobility behavior changes and directly have an impact on the demand. It is essential that in the organisational structure of the local/regional government clear responsibility to take care of the linkage of `hard `and `soft`policies is achieved.
Political acceptability The political acceptability will very much depend on the main focus of the promotional activity. While for a transport safety campaign for children it will be easy to get political acceptability, it will be much more difficult to get it for a cycling campaign in a city with 80% car drivers.
Public and stakeholder acceptability The public acceptability will very much depend on the main focus of the promotional activity. While for a transport safety campaign for children it will be easy to get public acceptability, it will be much more difficult to get it for a cycling campaign in a city with 80% car drivers.
Feasibility This depends on which promotional activities are used. When it comes to social media, some technical barriers needs to be considered.
= Minimal barrier = Most significant barrier

Case study 1: Campaign for the introduction of an area-wide speed limit 30 km/h in Graz
Case study 2: Traffic Snake Game
Case study 3: EUROPEAN Mobility Week 2013 in Ljubljana (including CFD activities)
Case study 4: Bike to work campaigns

Campaign for the introduction of an area-wide speed limit 30 km/h in Graz

Most parts of this case study were taken from the training materials of the EU project Transport Learning. As the first city in Europe, Graz implemented an area-wide speed limit of 30km/hour (with the exception of priority roads) in September 1992. The philosophy behind it all was to focus on awareness raising rather than infrastructural measures. The activities implemented were complex. Awareness raisings about the new speed limit of 30km/h was directed to the following target groups:

  • Decision makers
  • Opinion leaders and Multipliers
  • Specific target groups (Schools/lobby groups)
  • Population

Decision makers

Preparation of the following analyses and reports:

  • Public opinion regarding speed limit 30km/h (Socialdata)
  • Emission & Noise Report (Technical University Graz)
  • Safety report (Road Safety Board)
  • Legal report (University Graz)

The analyses were presented to the town council and presented to the media at various press conferences. It was possible to use the received data for the entire campaign in a slightly simplified form. A results brochure about the analyses was published and distributed among experts.

Opinion leaders and multipliers

  • Set-up of an address database (teachers, priests, doctors, hair dressers, innkeepers, workers’ council, lawyers, association representatives, representatives of citizens’ initiatives, active citizens)
  • Periodical mailing (every 2-3 months, starting a year before the launch) of a newsletter titled: „background information for active citizens”. These contained frequently asked questions regarding a speed limit of 30km/h and the appropriate answers.
  • Lectures by international experts & opinion leaders
  • Symposium with experts from the German Association of towns and villages and professors of German universities
  • Symposium with the mayor from Heidelberg and the mayor of Darmstadt
  • Workshop with national and international traffic safety experts

All lecture events were supported by the media and were open to interested public.

Activities of target groups

  • Teaching units about speed limit 30 were held in all primary schools of Graz. A video, specifically designed for this purpose was shown. At the end of the lesson a crash test dummy was used in front of the school to demonstrate the impact in a dramatic way. Two cars driving with 50 and 30 km/h respectively drove over the dummy.
  • “Lobby groups“ (associations, societies, citizens’ initiatives, parishes, NGOs and car clubs) were asked to participate in exclusive events. It was possible for every group to organise special discussion rounds and to discuss the pros and cons of speed limit 30with the vice mayor of Graz.

Population

  • All households in Graz received information twice. The publication „city map“ demonstrated the many chances of speed limit 30 with many illustrations and also pointed out possible side effects.
  • Comprehensive reports about speed limit 30 were published in all municipal media (municipal newspaper, district newspaper, newspapers of different political parties).
  • Speed limit 30 info stands providing direct information about speed limit 30 were placed at central places in town.
  • Motorists were informed through „living banners“. (2 persons standing at traffic lights with a banner in front of cars waiting for the green phase)
  • Countdown adverts in daily local newspapers announced: 10, 5, 3, 2, 1 more day until the launch of speed limit 30
  • Apart from the target-group work two additional elements of public relation work were used:
    1. Utilisation of public space for information activities
    2. Employment of a political representative (the vice mayor) as a central figure for the marketing campaign.

Public actions and activities in public space

  • Speed limit 30 info signs were attached to many municipal light masts (500 in total)
  • At all entries to priority roads pictograms were used as public relation elements.
  • Banners were placed at bridge railings, above streets and at roadsides.
  • Speed limit 30 info at building sites
  • The vice mayor used every opportunity to challenge declared opponents of speed limit 30 to public duels that were always accompanied by a lot of media interest. This promotion was even effective in cases when opponents, like e.g. the deputy governor, lost his nerve at the last minute.
  • Eccentric ideas were used. At a special meeting with priests the mayor suggested various possibilities to them on how to integrate the topic of speed limit 30 into their sermons.
  • At the time many people expressed the opinion that it’s impossible to drive 30 km/h in third gear. The mayor offered all of them a test ride, where he would chauffeur them around at 30 km/h. Many took him up on his offer and the media interest was enormous.

0102

Figure: Speed limit 30 in the city of Graz

Costs

The cost for the preparation phase of the speed limit 30 was about € 143.000. The cost for the implementation phase was about € 241.000. This includes cost for signposts and the awareness campaign. The annual costs for maintenance and smaller annually promotional activities are about € 110.000.

Impact on supply

Speed limit 30 slows down cars and also leads to a positive impact for cyclists. Speed limit 30 also led to safer traffic conditions for cyclists. Cyclists very often feel unsafe when cars are passing by with high speed. When a speed limit of 30km/h is introduced very often separate cycle lanes for bikes are no longer requested by cycling lobby groups.

Other Impacts

Impact on traffic safety

The introduction of speed limit 30 had an enormous impact on transport safety. The number of accidents with injuries decreased between 1992 and 1996 by 23%. This is a very strong argument to keep speed limit 30 in the city of Graz.

Figure: Accidents with injuries, Source: Kuratorium für Verkehrssicherheit
Impact on public opinion

The acceptance for the measure increased considerably after its introduction. One month before the introduction of the measure 70% of the public were against 30 speed limit. 3 years later only 20% of the public were against it.

Many opponents demanded a referendum before the introduction of the measure. The mayor however insisted that it’s only possible to vote for something that you know from first hand experience. He suggested holding a referendum after a 2 year trial period. But after 2 years nobody was interested in a referendum anymore and the pilot project was generally accepted.

Contribution to objectives

Contribution to objectives
Objectives Scale of contribution Comment
  No impact expected.
  Speed limit 30 lowers the speed limit on roads. This directly leads to safer circumstances for cyclists and pedestrians. People tend to prefer roads with a higher speed limit, which leads to more traffic on major roads and traffic calming on roads with speed limit of 30km/h.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
  Speed limit 30 has a high impact on traffic safety. Due to the lower speed limit the number of accidents with injuries decreased by 23%.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

Traffic Snake Game

Most parts of this case study were taken from the brochure of the EU project Schoolway. (3) The Traffic Snake Game is the core instrument of mobility management for schools. It is an awareness raising activity for mobility and health behaviour and fit to be played in any school.

“Getting to school in an eco-friendly, healthy and safe way” is the topic of the Traffic Snake Game which takes one week to be played and is set to motivate the children and teachers alike to primarily walk and/or cycle to school.

The game can be played by single classes or the whole school. A realistic target on how many car trips to school can be avoided or shifted during the action week is set by the teachers and pupils themselves, which essentially makes the Traffic Snake Game as successful as it is.

Learning in a playful way makes one`s way to school an adventurous and activity laden experience again. Moreover, the team spirit is raised in class since every single child is motivated to take part. It is all about fun and not so much about competition.

The reduction of car traffic in the vicinity of the school and lively discussions at home and in school on traffic safety, mobility and health behaviour are immediate results of the game.

Target group:

  • Children between 9 and 12 years of age
  • Teachers and parents

Preparations for the action:

  • Informing the teachers
  • Getting to know the game sets
  • Teaching units covering the topics mobility – environment – health

Game sets

The game set consists of a huge banner depicting the traffic snake, round golden playing cards, stickers for respective modes of transport to be attached on the round golden playing cards, bonus cards to collect extra points, and give-aways for the participating children.

The game set comes complete with an instruction, informational material and prepared teaching units to introduce the topic mobility – environment – health.

snake1
Figure: Banner of Traffic Snake Game

The Traffic Snake Game – Sequence of activities

  • Analysis of present status: How do the children get to school?
  • Set targets: Each class sets its own realistic target on how many car trips can be avoided.
  • The teacher asks the pupils every morning how they did get to school.
  • The round golden playing card is pinned to the banner if the target for the day has been reached.
  • The participating classes gather in front of the banner on the last day of the action and celebrate their success.
  • All participating children get small presents before and after to motivate them and finally remind them of the Traffic Snake Game (e.g. buttons, felt pens, mint drops).

Factors of Success of the Traffic Snake Game

  1. The game can be played any time.
    Pupils can take part regardless where they live.
  1. Preparing and playing the game takes little effort from the teachers` side.
    The game is well-structured and can be implemented easily in any type of school.
  1. The children are the main actors and they can see daily what they have achieved.
  1. The game raises the team spirit
  1. Every class can set its own realistic target.
    In this way the children will stay motivated over the whole period of the action. They have fun without losing touch with their goals. It is important to question and positively influence their own and their parents` mobility behaviour in a playful manner.
  1. Parents are actively involved.
    On parents` evenings information on the game is given and everyone is asked to actively support the action.
  1. Also teachers can get involved in the game and collect bonus points.
  1. The final event on the last day gives opportunity to representatives of the community, politicians, and sponsors to assure themselves of the game`s success. Moreover, the event can be used to communicate the school`s engagement in traffic safety, environment and health prevention to a wider public audience.

snake2
Figure: Traffic Snake Game in schools in Graz

Impact on demand

Pupils profit from the Traffic Snake Game, in a way that

  • Their mobility competence is fostered by independently negotiating every day ways.
  • They actively perceive their environment and learn to better judge dangers by actively taking part in the game.
  • They widen their scope of personal experiences by independently negotiating their way to school.
  • Their awareness for an intelligent choice of modes of transport is raised.
  • They more often get to school or leisure time activities walking or cycling.

The school profits from the Traffic Snake Game, in a way that

  • The school`s traffic situation is actively improved.
  • Traffic in the vicinity of the school is calmed.
  • The danger for pupils who get to school walking or cycling is reduced.
  • Teachers perceive themselves as role models.

Parents profit from Traffic Snake Game, in a way that

  • They can reduce in accompanying their children to school and have less stress in the morning hours.
  • They contribute to traffic safety in the vicinity of the school.
  • They are motivated to reflect their own habits and lifelong mobility patterns.

As a result of the Traffic Snake Game, more children get to school alone or together with other children. Parents` company was reduced nearly half.

Other impacts

Positive Effects of the Traffic Snake Game on Health

Pupils profit from the Traffic Snake Game, in a way that

  • They feel better and their ability to concentrate is improved through daily exercise on the way to school.
  • Their body`s defences are strengthened and their self-confidence boosted through regular exercise.
  • They prevent postural deformities, cardiovascular diseases and overweight.
  • They exercise their physical abilities by independently negotiating their way to school.
  • They have the opportunity to make friends on their way to school and improve on social competence.

The school profits from Traffic Snake Game, in a way that

  • Children who exercise can concentrate better.
  • Children who exercise on their way to school are not likely to go wild in the classroom and their ability to learn is improved.
  • It fosters a sense of responsibility concerning health in all parties involved.

Parents profit from Traffic Snake Game, in a way that

  • Their children become / stay healthy in respect to physical, mental and social aspects of life.
  • They further the health of their children in supporting the implementation of SMM measures.

Positive Effects of Traffic Snake Game on the environment

  • Air and noise pollution is reduced through increased walking, cycling and the use of means of public transport.
  • Urban life quality is enhanced through less car traffic in the vicinity of schools.
  • Traffic Snake Game contributes in avoiding negative environmental impacts such as green house effect, particulate matter, smog, or acid rain.

Contribution to objectives

Contribution to objectives
Objectives Scale of contribution Comment
  Fewer parents brought their children by car to school.
  No impact expected.
  Air and noise pollution is reduced through increased walking, cycling and the use of means of public transport. The Traffic Snake Game contributes in avoiding negative environmental impacts such as green house effect, particulate matter, smog, or acid rain.
  The Traffic Snake Game had an impact that children were travelling to school with other children. While before the majority of school children were individually brought by their parents.
 

Since more children get to school in an eco-friendly way, the volume of traffic produced by parents' cars before and after school is reduced. Therefore, safety for children in the school area is increased.

  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

EUROPEAN Mobility Week 2013 in Ljubljana (including CFD activities)

Most parts of this case study were taken from the Apllication for the European Mobility Week 2013 from the city of Ljubljana (4). The City of Ljubljana (COL) participated in the European Mobility Week for the 12th year in a row, each year expanding and improving the activities as the city is aware that encouraging sustainable mobility is one of the key measures for improving the quality of life – a goal COL continually strive for.

During the European Mobility Week (EMW) COL, together with many of our colleagues, organisations and friends carried out 10 weekly events (carried them throughout the entire week) and 20 daily events, while pupils in primary schools and children in kindergartens in COL participated in over 250 events. In addition to this, the campaign period was also used to present good practices from different European projects (CIVITAS Elan, CHAMP, and Bike-Track-Bike).

"This year's programme of activities and the number of active participants who contributed to the implementation of the programme has once again confirmed and proved that we are more and more aware of how important it is for each and every individual and for the society as a whole to change our travelling habits and walk, cycle or use public transport instead of a car," emphasised Deputy Mayor Ms Jelka Žekar, President of the Board for the planning and implementation of the EMW and Car-free Day. In this regard, COL is particularly proud of the introduction of two permanent measures – the car-free traffic rearrangement on Slovenska Street (6,540 m2 area) and the introduction of the electric minibus Kavalir 3, which supplements the complaisance of the other two open toll-free on demand Kavalirs, but, unlike the other two, operates all year long, regardless of the weather.

EMW 2013 in Ljubljana – highlights:

  • 10 all-week activities and 20 daily events were carried out, while children in primary schools and kindergartens in COL participated in over 250 events;
  • two permanent measures have been introduced: the new car-free traffic rearrangement on the main traffic “artery” through the city centre Slovenska Street and the introduction of electric minibus Kavalir 3 that ensures a toll-free on-demand ride in the expanded pedestrian zone;
  • the refurbishment of Slovenska Street (6,540 m2 area) also led to the introduction of dedicated bus lanes on nearby streets (approx. 3 km long) to encourage the use of public transport instead of private cars;
  • For a more systematic and efficient organization of the EMW, Board for the planning and implementation of the EMW and Car-free Day was founded 14 years ago and formally includes 18 members, who collaborated with over 20 other organisations (as well as 29 primary schools and 16 kindergartens in COL). The Board held 4 meetings under the leadership of the Deputy Mayor of COL, Ms Jelka Žekar, Chair of the Board. Teamwork and regular communication between members of the Board from different fields and intensive cooperation with other indicated stakeholders made possible the quality and effective implementation of all planned events.

EMW 2013 events:

Every-day activities from 16 to 22 September:
The activities were implemented on the daily basis throughout the whole week from 16 to 22 September. To provide their better efficiency some of them continued also after the conclusion of the European Mobility Week (EMW).
  • Department for Environmental Protection of the COL City Administration conducted the measurements of air quality:
    • regular measurements in the scope of Environmental Measuring System (OMS) at the crossroads of Tivolska and Vošnjakova Street;
    • black carbon measurements that are usually not included in the standard set of measurements according to the Directive 2008/50/EC; these measurements provide the analysis and differentiate the traffic impact from other pollution sources since the black carbon measuring device (aethalometer) measures only the primary particles that directly emanate into the air via the exhaust gases; unlike the particle measurements, the black carbon measurements thus provide the accurate determination of the level of local pollution and effects of individual measures.
  • The informative noise measurements were also carried out during EMW in order to establish the impact of the modified traffic regime on the noise load. To this end, a series of short-term informative measurements was conducted by applying the portable noise meter along the Slovenska Street, i.e. between Figovec and Ljubljana National Drama Theatre on 18 September and 1 October 2013.
  • Development Projects and Investments Office of the COL City Administration in the collaboration with the Center for Mobility Research of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Maribor and the RM Plus company has conducted and still conducts the research titled “Travel behaviour of residents in the City of Ljubljana and in the Ljubljana Urban Region” on the sample of 2000 households. During the European Mobility Week (16–22 September) the preliminary telephone survey has been carried out. The survey will continue in the field and via internet until November.
  • In connection with the European project CHAMP (www.champ-cycling.eu) the promotion of coexistence of pedestrians and cyclists in the pedestrian zone took place during and after EMW. Also the redirection of cyclists was carried out from the so called considerate route (the Ljubljanica river bank with its high pedestrian density) to the so called alternative cycling routes (Novi Trg, Wolfova Ulica, Trubarjeva Cesta, Ciril Metodov Trg, where the coexistence exists). The brochures with the appeal to the cyclists were being handed out in the city centre that included also a handy map of the alternative cycling routes.
  • COL City Traffic Warden Service and the Police conducted the traffic control and monitored the behaviour of various road users. During EMW they also informed and advised the passers-by on the activities of City Traffic Warden Service via various communication channels and handed out promotional material and info brochures.
  • Public company Ljubljana Passenger Transport (Ljubljanski potniški promet – LPP) started the campaign “Riding with LPP is cool” aimed at promotion of the public transport by visiting schools in the COL. During this “preparation” period, they discussed with pupils about alternative communication tools and channels, such as social networks and on-line media. Five classes in primary schools decided to actively participate and compete among one another for free ride with LPP up to 250 km.
  • Regional Development Agency of the Ljubljana Urban Region (RDA LUR) has presented a new free mobile application “A to B: LJ” for route planning. The provided solution encompasses three modes of sustainable transport in the City of Ljubljana: by bicycle – Bicike(LJ), by bus – LPP, and on foot. This is one of the first incorporations of bicycle as a sustainable, publicly available transport means into the mobile application of the European city that provides an improved and comprehensive offer to the user.
  • The European Parliament Information Office in Slovenia and the Delegation of the European Commission in Slovenia were presenting the sustainable mobility and related measures of the European Union at the information stand in front of the European Union House for a whole week. The visitors were able to test their knowledge on the sustainable mobility also by participating in the “Wheel of Fortune” prize contest.
  • The Kazina Dance School for the third time participated in the event with its projects I Live the Dance and I Breathe the Dance (the latter is described in the activities-by-days section). In the scope of the I Live the Dance project the attention of the pupils was drawn to the detrimental impact of car traffic to the environment by teaching them the dance choreography. They were presented with alternative modes of transport and informed that the quality of city life can be improved by decreasing the pollution in urban centres. The workshops took place between 9–16 September 2013 in 19 primary schools and 4 secondary schools in Ljubljana with 2533 primary school and 590 secondary school pupils participating. The number of participants is growing every year. In 2012, the project recorded 1551 pupils from 16 primary schools and 293 pupils from 7 secondary schools, while in 2011 the numbers were 620 pupils from 9 primary schools and 98 pupils from 3 secondary schools.

Impact on demand

The operation of Ljubljana's public self-service bike sharing system Bicike increased. The number of bike borrowings was the highest in September during the EMW, amounting to 16.705, which is almost 30% more than a week before.

LPP (the local public transport operator) noticed only a slight increase in the number of validations on public city buses during the EMW, however, the number of validations in October increased by around 30%. This could be the result not solely of awareness raising, but more so of the recent measures, aimed at encouraging the use of public transport – the Slovenska Street rearrangement and the introduction of yellow bus lanes (approx. 3 km long) on Celovška Street and on Dunajska Street (permanent measures).

Other impacts

On the restricted area for motor vehicles on the Slovenska Street – a black carbon (BC) measurement campaign was made covering measurements of BC concentrations on three locations. From the comparison before and after, significant decrease of BC concentration on the location of the restricted area can be observed. The implementation of this measure has contributed to 58% relative decrease of BC concentrations.

Contribution to objectives

Contribution to objectives
Objectives Scale of contribution Comment
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
  Measurements have shown that black carbon concentrations decreased.
  No impact expected.
 

No impact expected.

  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

Bike to work campaigns

Most parts of this case study were taken from the training materials of the EU project Transport Learning. Bike to work is a well-known and wide spread campaign across Europe. Put into one sentence, Bike to work motivates employees to cycle to work using a competition. It takes the format of:

  • national campaigns e.g. in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Liechtenstein or Switzerland
  • regional campaigns e.g. in Austria or Slovenia
  • local campaigns e.g. in Italy, Poland or Portugal

Objective of the campaign

The target is to bring more exercise to everyday life. One of the main focal points is a clear change in the participants’ patterns of behaviour. Another goal lies in influencing decision-makers or motivating them towards an attitudinal change in municipal and/or intercompany areas. The promotion of public health is a holistic concept and as such requires measures which interlace accordingly. The campaign provides an excellent example of the kind of collaboration required within individual establishments and society as a whole. The joint experience of the accompanying team competition will have a positive effect on the working climate. The confluence of employer support and employee commitment generates additional workplace satisfaction and motivation.

Implementation

Work mates get together to form teams and compete against teams from all over the country. The more days of cycling - the bigger chances for winning. Every team has a team leader that is responsible for giving information and campaign material to the team. The team leader is the one who registers the biking days on the web. There can be a maximum of 16 colleagues in a team. The participants are allowed to use another means of transportation some of the way or one way which is a perfect chance for new cyclists.

Specifying resources

This is usually underestimated – success is often a matter of detail. The (personnel) resources vary during the campaign. It depends on the active participation of the partners. At least one employee will spend 50% of their time involved in the organisational planning and managing of the project. Also you will need graphical support for designing the media – either one of your own employees or e.g. an agency(ies). You will also need a database for recording the participant data. Depending on the scope of your plans, try to ensure that it is possible for several offices to use the database uniformly. You will need the data for drawing the prize winners (although this can also be performed manually) and also for evaluation purposes e.g. for determining the cycle-friendly commune. Commission a specialist to develop the database. Plan the financial costs. In addition to the personnel, you will need funds for the design and production of the media, the Internet website, to create and analyse the database, for prize competitions, postage, kick-off and final events. Your goal should be to refinance the whole campaign with the help of your partners.

Motivating factors

  • Exercise, personal wellbeing and health
  • Prizes
  • Environmental awareness
  • Teamwork – building relationships with work colleagues

Cornerstones

  • 3-4 weeks or up to 2 months duration spring/early summer
  • Teams of 2 / 4 persons taking part
  • Costs 4 € per participant
  • Diary-posters about cycling / not cycling to work
  • Newsletters sent out throughout the campaign
  • Results sent in by team coordinators at the end
  • Final lottery with great prizes
  • At least 50% ”cycle days” required
  • Diplomas sent to all teams meeting the criteria

Impact on demand

Results in Germany

  • The campaign has been rapidly growing since its inception in 2001. In 2002 it was extended to the whole of Bavaria. In 2006 all German States participated with 125,000 participants from 14,000 companies. In 2010 around 60,000 persons in the State of Bavaria alone participated.

Results in Denmark

  • 90-100,000 individuals take part (3.6 % of the Danish labour force)
  • 57% already cycle every day before the campaign
  • 14% cycle more often between home and work
  • 18% cycle more for other purposes

Contribution to objectives

Contribution to objectives
Objectives Scale of contribution Comment
  Fewer employees were using their car to travel to work.
  No impact expected.
  Air and noise pollution is reduced through increased cycling. The campaign contributes in avoiding negative environmental impacts such CO2 emissions or particulate matter.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
  No impact expected.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

 

Contribution to objectives

Contribution to objectives
Objective Scale of contribution Comment
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. Most of the promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport. For cyclists, pedestrians and public transport users it will be cheaper to provide and maintain infrastructure than for car drivers.
  Promotional campaigns which focus on local streets will increase liveability.
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. Most promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport modes, which leads directly to protect the environment and produce less air pollution.
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. If the main objective of the promotional activity is to increase accessibility for e.g. handicapped people, then this can have an impact.
  This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. If the main objective is on transport safety. Then this will have a positive impact on this issue.
  No impact expected.
  Promotional activities are relatively inexpensive.
= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

Contribution to problems

Contribution to problems
Problem Scale of contribution Comment
Congestion This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport modes, which leads directly to less congestion.
Community impacts Promotional campaigns which focus on local streets will encourage community involvement.
Environmental damage This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase sustainable transport modes, which leads directly to protect the environment.
Poor accessibility This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. If the main objective of the promotional activity is to increase accessibility for e.g. handicapped people, then this can have an impact.
Social or geographic disadvantage

No impact expected.

Accidents This depends on the main objective of the promotional activities. A lot of promotional activities aim to increase transport safety, e.g. awareness campaign for 30 km/h speed limit in cities in order to decrease accidents.
Economic growth

No impact expected.

= Weakest possible positive contribution = Strongest possible positive contribution
= Weakest possible negative contribution = Strongest possible negative contribution
= No contribution

Appropriate contexts

Appropriate area-types
Area type Suitability
City centre
Dense inner suburb
Medium density outer suburb
Less dense outer suburb
District centre
Corridor
Small town
Tourist town
= Least suitable area type = Most suitable area type

Adverse side effects

Promotional activities are not very cheap and a sufficient amount of money is needed to create something useful. Before starting the activities or the campaign clear target groups and objectives need to be identified. It is important to consider that other sectors like the car industry also have huge budgets to promote car usage via promotional activities.

Transport Learning, EU Project, Training Materials, Design and implementation of sustainable mobility campaigns, [Cited: 07.07.2014], http://transportlearning.net/index.php?id=6

Guidemaps, EU Project, Guidemaps Handbook [Cited, 05.07.2014], http://www.eltis.org/docs/tools/guidemapshandbook_web.pdf

Schoolway, EU Project, Traffic Snake Game, Brochure [Cited, 04.07.2014] http://www.schoolway.net

Application for European Mobility Week 2013, Ljubljana, City of Ljubljana, 2013 [Cited: 07.07.2014].