Personalised journey planning
Personalised journey planning (PJP) is a highly targeted measure to achieve reductions in car use. Personalised journey planning works with individuals (usually across a specified geographical area) to provide information on alternatives to the car for the trips that they make, and encourage use of those alternatives. Personalised journey planning falls under the umbrella of public awareness campaigns (Smarter Choices in the UK and sometimes Travel Smart elsewhere). These campaigns can range from passive advertising to a wide audience to PJP. It is also possible to implement multiple Smarter Choices simultaneously, such that each enhances the performance of another, e.g., advertising can support a PJP programme.
There are a number of steps on the way to achieving a reduction in car use, which can be tackled through a PJP programme. These include problem awareness, accepting responsibility, perception of alternatives, evaluation of alternatives, making a choice, experimental behaviour and habitual behaviour (TAPESTRY, 2003). It should also be noted that having made a change, habitual drivers can relapse into old travel patterns. Relapse may occur if individuals do not feel supported, they feel they are making changes in isolation, the alternatives they are using do not adequately meet their needs or involve too much effort, or they perceive that the need to use cars less has receded. Such relapses may not be permanent. Individuals can cycle through the stages of change several times. The change may be longer lasting each time until it becomes habitual.
Demand impacts resulting from PJP may be small initially (although this depends on other policy instruments), but are incremental over time as more campaigns are implemented. Contributions to achieving policy objectives are therefore mainly positive.